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Category Archives: Seasonal Articles

On the Mind of Christ | St. Gregory Nazianzen

st-gregory-the-theologian-julia-bridget-hayesIf anyone does not believe that Holy Mary is the Mother of God, he is severed from the Godhead. If anyone should assert that He passed through the Virgin as through a channel, and was not at once divinely and humanly formed in her (divinely, because without the intervention of a man; humanly, because in accordance with the laws of gestation), he is in like manner godless. If any assert that the Manhood was formed and afterward was clothed with the Godhead, he too is to be condemned. For this were not a generation of God, but a shirking of generation. If any introduce the notion of Two Sons, one of God the Father, the other of the Mother, and discredits the unity and identity, may he lose his part in the adoption promised to those who believe aright. For God and man are two natures, as also soul and body are; but there are not two Sons or two Gods. For neither in this life are there two manhoods; though Paul speaks in some such language of the inner and outer man. And (if I am to speak concisely) the Savior is made of elements which are distinct from one another (for the invisible is not the same with the visible, nor the timeless with that which is subject to time), yet He is not two Persons. God forbid! For both natures are one by the combination, the Deity being made Man, and the Manhood deified or however one should express it. And I say different elements, because it is the reverse of what is the case in the Trinity; for There we acknowledge different Persons so as not to confound the persons; but not different Elements, for the Three are One and the same in Godhead….

If anyone has put his trust in Him as a Man without a human mind, he is really bereft of mind, and quite unworthy of salvation. For that which He has not assumed He has not healed; but that which is united to His Godhead is also saved. If only half Adam fell, then that which Christ assumes and saves may be half also; but if the whole of his nature fell, it must be united to the whole nature of Him that was begotten, and so be saved as a whole. Let them not, then, begrudge us our complete salvation, or clothe the Savior only with bones and nerves and the portraiture of humanity. For if His Manhood is without soul, even the Arians admit this, that they may attribute His Passion to the Godhead, as that which gives motion to the body is also that which suffers. But if He has a soul, and yet is without a mind, how is He man, for man is not a mindless animal? And this would necessarily involve that while His form and tabernacle was human, His soul should be that of a horse or an ox, or some other of the brute creation. This, then, would be what He saves; and I have been deceived by the Truth, and led to boast of an honor which had been bestowed upon another. But if His Manhood is intellectual and nor without mind, let them cease to be thus really mindless. But, says such a one, the Godhead took the place of the human intellect. How does this touch me? For Godhead joined to flesh alone is not man, nor to soul alone, nor to both apart from intellect, which is the most essential part of man. Keep then the whole man, and mingle Godhead therewith, that you may benefit me in my completeness. But, he asserts, He could not contain two perfect natures. Not if you only look at Him in a bodily fashion. For a bushel measure will not hold two bushels, nor will the space of one body hold two or more bodies. But if you will look at what is mental and incorporeal, remember that I in my one personality can contain soul and reason and mind and the Holy Spirit; and before me this world, by which I mean the system of things visible and invisible, contained Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. For such is the nature of intellectual existences, that they can mingle with one another and with bodies, incorporeally and invisibly.

The Didache

There are two ways, the one of life and the one of death; the difference between the ways is great. Now the way of life is this. First you shall love the God who made you, secondly your neighbor as yourself, and whatever you would not wish done to you, do not do to anyone else.

The instruction of these maxims is this: Bless those who curse you and pray for your enemies, fast on behalf of those who persecute you. For what is the merit of loving those who love you? Do not even the gentiles do the same? But love those who hate you, and you shall have no enemy.

Abstain from fleshly and worldly lusts. If anyone gives you a blow to your right cheek, turn the other to him also, and you will be perfect. If anyone obliges you to go a mile, go with him two; if anyone takes away your cloak, give him your coat also. If anyone takes what is yours from you, do not ask for it back, for you are unable.

Give to everyone who ask from you, and do not ask it back;for the Father wishes to give to all from his own graces. Whoever gives in accordance with the commandment is blessed, for he is free of guilt; but woe to anyone who receives. For anyone in need who receives is free of guilt; but anyone who receives when not in need shall stand trial as to why he received and for what purpose; and when in prison shall be examined concerning the things that he has done, and shall not depart thence until he has paid back the last cent. But on this it was also said; “Let your alms sweat in your hands until you know to whom you are giving”

The second commandment of the instruction: you shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery, you shall not despoil a child, you shall not fornicate, you shall not steal, you shall not practice sorcery, you shall not make potions, you shall not murder a child through abortion nor kill it once born, you shall not covet what is your neighbor’s, you shall not swear falsely, you shall not bear false witness, you shall not speak evil, you shall not store up wrongs, you shall not be doubleminded or double-tongued. For being double-tongued is a snare of death. Your words shall not be false, nor empty, but shall be matched by action. You shall not be grasping, nor rapacious, nor hypocritical, nor malicious, nor arrogant. You shall not plot evil against your neighbor. You shall not hate any person, but some you shall rebuke, for some you shall pray, and some you shall love more than your own life.

My child, shun every evil person and all who are like them. Do not be quick-tempered, for anger leads to murder, nor jealous nor quarrelsome, nor aggressive. For murder is begotten from these. My child, do not be given over to passion, for lusts leads to fornication, nor a speaker of base words, nor immodestly curious. For from all these adulteries are begotten….

Be generous, since the generous shall inherit the earth (Ps 36.11). Be patient, merciful, guileless and peaceable, good and fearing always the words which you heard. You shall not make yourself haughty, nor give your life over to presumption. Do not spend your life with the exalted but associate with the righteous and lowly. Whatever befall you, accept these experiences as good, knowing that nothing occurs without God.

The Shepherd of Hermas

Parable 1 – A Parable of Two Cities

He says to me, “You know that you who are the servants of God dwell in a strange land; for your city is far away from this one. If, then,” he continues, Shepard of Hermas“you know your city in which you are to dwell, why do ye here provide lands, and make expensive preparations, and accumulate dwellings and useless buildings? He who makes such preparations for this city cannot return again to his own. Oh foolish, and unstable, and miserable man! Dost thou not understand that all these things belong to another, and are under the power of another? For the Lord of this city will say, ‘I do not wish thee to dwell in my city; but depart from this city, because thou obeyest not my laws.’ Thou, therefore, although having fields and houses, and many other things, when cast out by him, what wilt thou do with thy land, and house, and other possessions which thou hast gathered to thyself? For the Lord of this country justly says to thee, ‘Either obey my laws or depart from my dominion.’

The Significance of Resurrection

H.H. Pope Shenouda III
His Holiness Pope Shenouda III
Pope of Alexandria & Patriarch of the See of St. Mark
-An excerpt from His Holiness’ book Words of Spiritual Benefit.

Death is an alien and a stranger to humanity. When God created man, He formed him for life; He breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living being.

God wished him life and perpetuity, but man’s choice was inclined towards sin. Man thus brought death upon himself as a result of his sin, “For the wages of sin is death…” (Romans6:23), and death came into the world and reigned over humanity.

We rejoice with the resurrection because it is a triumph over death and a return of man’s nature to life. God has created man to live and not to die.

Christ’s resurrection is the handsel of our resurrection, and thus, Saint Paul the apostle described Him as “…the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep.” (1Corinthians15:20) He is the first fruit and we will rise after him.

Perhaps someone may ask saying ‘How can Christ be the first fruit of the dead while many rose before Him?’ Examples of such people are:

  1. The son of the widow in Zarephath in the region of Sidon, who was raised from death by Elijah the prophet (1Kings17:22).
  2. The son of the Shunammite, whom Elisha the prophet raised from death (2Kings4:32-36).
  3. The three whom the Lord Christ Himself raised from death, and they are:

1. The son of the widow of the town called Nain,

2. Jairus’ daughter, and

3. Lazarus.

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